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History of Quinolone ( fluoroquinolones) antibiotics

Nalidixic acid is considered to be the predecessor of all members of the quinolone family, including the second, third and fourth generations commonly known as fluoroquinolones. This first generation also included other quinolone drugs such as pipemidic acid, oxolinic acid and cinoxacin, which were introduced in the 1970s.

They proved to be only marginal improvements over nalidixic acid. Though it is generally accepted that nalidixic acid is to be considered the first quinolone drug, this has been disputed over the years by a few researchers who believe that chloroquine, from which nalidixic acid is derived, is to be considered the first quinolone drug rather than nalidixic acid.

Since the introduction of nalidixic acid in 1962, more than 10,000 analogs have been synthesized, but only a handful have found their way into clinical practice.[11]The Fluoroquinolone drugs are the most toxic and dangerous antibiotics in clinical practice today.[


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